Memphis
Egypt, Memphis

Memphis is an ancient Egyptian city, the former capital of the Ancient Kingdom, which is located on the border of Upper and Lower Egypt, in the Nile River Delta, 18 km south of Cairo. The ancient city existed from the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. and until the second half of the 1st millennium A.D. Due to its geographical position, Memphis was the most important reference city for the pharaohs. Memphis was also the first cosmopolitan city of Ancient Egypt, the Phoenicians, Syrians, Jews, Greeks lived here. Around the city are temple and burial complexes - necropolises, temples, pyramids. In the center of the ancient city was the center of veneration of the local god Ptah, the patron saint of Memphis. The cult of the bull Hep (Apis) was associated with him. According to the legend of Greek mythology, the city of Memphis is named after the Queen of Memphis, who was the wife of Epaphos, who founded the city. Memphis was built by King Min, who ordered to change the direction of the river bed and build a dam, and build a city at the site of the foundation pit. For millennia, Memphis has been the administrative, commercial, and cultural center to which pilgrims and merchants flocked from all over Asia and Africa. With the advent of Alexandria, Memphis gradually began to decline and collapse. To this day, not a single building has been preserved. The ruins of the former ancient Egyptian city are represented by fragments, as evidence of the past. They are preserved and are an open-air museum. Excavations are still ongoing, however, they are complicated by the high level of groundwater and the fact that the ruins of the ancient city are privately owned and planted with palm groves. Necropolises of Memphis - Saqqara, Abusir, Dakhshur and Giza were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The necropolis of Saqqara was a favorite burial place of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. A line of pyramids begins near the necropolis. The center of the necropolis is the pyramid of Djoser, the first pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty, who lived 4700 years ago. This step pyramid is called by scientists "the mother of the pyramids" and is the world's first grandiose stone structure. The Temple of Ptah, Apries Palace and two huge statues of Ramses II have survived to this day. These are the most important ancient monuments found in Memphis. This open-air museum attracts a huge number of tourists.

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