Mariana Trench (Mariana Trench)
Northern Mariana Islands, Northern Mariana Islands (excursion)

The center of the Mariana Trench is located at 11 ° 22 ′ north latitude and 142 ° 35 ′ east longitude. But on the surface of the ocean, nothing indicates the abyss below.
Man could never resist the desire to explore the unknown, and the astounding successes of technological progress opened up the opportunity to touch the secrets hidden in the most inhospitable environment in the world - deep-sea plains and gutters. They exist in all oceans of the world, but they are most clearly represented in the Pacific Ocean, but the Mariana Trench is the deepest - its depth is 11,022 meters below sea level. The difficulties associated with the study and comprehension of creatures living at these unimaginable depths are colossal. Just to get samples using a vertical grip would require more than 11 kilometers of extremely durable wire. The pressure at these depths exceeds 1100 atmospheres, and to date, human ingenuity has allowed to send a manned underwater vehicle made of titanium only to a depth of 6 km, which helps to get only to the edge of the gutter. However, the thirst for knowledge required at least indirect, with the help of probes and sensors, and more recently, video cameras, a study of these deep areas; as a result, a rich community of animals was discovered, consisting of representatives of both known and less familiar marine groups. The variety of species in the gutter is not as great as on the abyssal plains, starfish and ophiuras and groups such as sipun-coolids and echiurids are poorly represented here, but many species of crabs and other crustaceans, polychaete worms, bivalves and holothurians are found. The light does not reach such depths, but these creatures illuminated are no less colorful than their relatives up there. It seems that many of the animals grow to much larger sizes here than their counterparts even at abyssal depths. Around some of the hydrothermal springs in the more active regions of sea anemone, in other places not exceeding a dozen centimeters in length, can grow up to 1.2-1.5 meters, with tentacles a meter long, and pogonophors, usually measured in centimeters, reach 1.2 meter in length.

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